BGA : It is made use of in the mounting of integrated circuits onto a printed circuit boards (PCB). It provides much more pins than a standard in-line package or a flat package.
Is used for the interconnection of an IC with a PCB without the need of drilling and other issues as it gives pins for the purpose of connection. The connection is made between the package and the PCB with not just the use of the circumferential pins but the entire flat bottom of it which is placed in contact with the PCB. The bottom surface of a BGA consists of tiny leads or pins which are many in number and are very fast in conduction speeds.
Producing an IC that can be easily fit to a PCB was an issue all the time until the making of a BGA. An automated method is used for the soldering of a BGA. A BGA connects an IC with a PCB using hundreds of pins. Since the soldering is done by an automated process, the risk of cross connection or two adjacent pins getting bridged was reduced substantially. Since BGA does not have any protruding legs popping out of it, the use of leads adds to the thermal conduction of a BGA. This procedure helps in dissipating and diffusing the heat generated by a BGA onto a PCB avoiding any thermal damages caused to the IC.
There can be multiple BGAs assembled on a single printed circuit board. The extension of pins or tiny leads out of a BGA has a specific grid pattern in the form of an array. These tiny leads are nothing but solder spheres. A pad consisting of many solder spheres in the form of an array grid pattern is placed under the BGA. A PCB that incorporates the same patter as that of the solder balls is held beneath it in order to place the entire BGA package on to it thus completing the connection. The two, that is the BGA and the PCB are mutually connected by heating the entire package. Infrared heaters are used in the process.
The BGA is a master in providing low inductance leads. Inductance causes the distortion of signals. Inductance is offered by elements like an inductor or a wire to a certain extent. The use of tiny solder leads reduces any unnecessary inductance that may have been caused otherwise. The tight packaging of a BGA with a very short conduction distance between the BGA and the printed circuit board provides a very efficient conduction method for an entire electronics circuitry to perform its task more quickly.
There are a few disadvantages to BGAs as well. One of the more common ones is fracture of the solder joints due to overheating. Also the cost of production in case of BGA is slightly more than that of other packaging techniques and packaging equipment.
The market for BGAs is ever growing and is usually mass purchased by manufacturers of electronics goods. Electronics hobbyists buy the equipment to tinker and tweak the device and to build new ideas as trending in the modern day. A BGAs close interconnection along with its patterned circuitry provides an increase in the conduction and adds to the efficiency of a device and has made it a favourite among electronics makers.